Descriptions of operational taxa found in field studies in Scotland.

(Loch Ard area of The Trossachs, Galloway, Islay, Morar and Glenelg:
Kinross, 1985, 1991 and unpublished data)


Cyanobacteria: Oscillatoriaceae: Oscillatoria;   Phormidium;   Tolypothrix;   Tolypothrix epiphyte;   Stigonema;   Scytonema;   Amphithrix
Rhodophyta: Batrachospermum;   Lemanea;   Audouinella (=Rhodochorton );   Audouinella (green);
Chlorophyceae: Chaetophorales: Draparnaldia;   Stigeoclonium;   Chaetophora;   Microthamnion.
Bulbochaete;   Oedogonium.
Zygnemataceae: Zygnemales: Spirogyra;   Zygnema;   Mougeotia.
Microsporales: Microspora.
Ulotrichales: Geminella;   Hormidium (Klebsormidium);   Ulothrix.


These samples were collected as part of an investigation of the effect of 'acid rain' into the distribution of freshwater algae, between 1985 and 1989. Background information on the development of our understanding of freshwater acidification during this period (with some recent updates) can be found here (lecture notes).
It is interesting to compare the controversy over the cause of acidification with the current climate change debate (2012). As then, vested interests are keen to deny a role for anthropogenic emissions.


Cox, E.R. and Bold, H.C., 1966. Taxonomic investigations of Stigeoclonium.: Phycological Studies. VII. Sept.15.

Kinross, J. 1985. The algal flora of acidified streams: MSc thesis, Napier Polytechnic.

Kinross, J. 1991. The Effect of Acidification on Epilithic Algae in the Loch Ard Catchment: PhD Thesis, Napier Polytechnic, Edinburgh.

Miller, R.D. and Hoshaw, R.W. 1974. Cell width as a taxonomic character with special reference to Zygnema circumcarinatum Czurda: Br. Phycol. J. 9. 145-148.

Prescott, G. 1970. How to Know the Freshwater Algae: Pictured Key Series. Wm. C. Brown Co., Dubuque, Iowa.

Simons, J., van Beem, A.P. and de Vries, P.J.R. 1986. Morphology of the prostrate thallus of Stigeoclonium (Chlorophyceae, Chaetophorales) and its taxonomic implications: Phycologia. 25. 210-220.

Ramanathan, K.R. 1962. Ulotrichales: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.

Randhawa, M.S. 1959. Zygnemaceae: Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi.

West, G.S. 1904. The British Freshwater Algae: Cambridge University Press.


Page updated 27/12/2012

John Kinross